Congratulations on the arrival of your new kitten! Owning a kitten can be an extremely rewarding experience, but it is also a large responsibility. We hope this handout will give you the information needed to make some good decisions regarding your newest family member.

How should I introduce my kitten to its new environment?

A cat is naturally inclined to investigate its new surroundings, It is suggested that the kitten’s area of exploration be initially limited so that you can supervise its’ activities. After confining the cat to one room for a few days, you can slowly allow access to other areas of the home.


How should I introduce my kitten to my other cat?

Most kittens receive a hostile reception from other household pets, especially from other cats. The other cat will usually see no need for a kitten in the household, and these feelings will be reinforced if it senses that special favouritism is being shown to the kitten. The existing cat must not feel that it is necessary to compete for food or attention. The new kitten should have its own food bowl and it should not be permitted to eat from the other cat’s bowl. Although it is natural to spend time holding and cuddling the kitten, the existing cat will quickly sense that it is being neglected. The new kitten needs lots of love and attention, but the existing cat should not be slighted. In fact, the transition will be smoother if the existing cat is given more attention than normal.


The introduction period will usually last one to two weeks and will have one of three possible outcomes:

The existing cat will remain hostile to the kitten. Fighting may occasionally occur, especially if both try to eat out of the same bowl at the same time. This is an unlikely occurrence if competition for food and affection are minimized during the first few weeks.

The existing cat will only tolerate the kitten. Hostility will cease, but the existing cat will act as if the kitten is not present. This is more likely if the existing cat is very independent, has been an only cat for several years, or if marked competition occurred through the first few weeks. This relationship is likely to be permanent.

Bonding
will occur between the existing cat and the kitten. They will play together, groom each other, and sleep near one another. This is more likely to occur if competition is minimized and if the existing cat has been lonely for companionship.


What type of play behaviour should I expect from a kitten?

Encouraging appropriate play activities is very important from the first day in your home. Stalking and pouncing are important play behaviours in kittens and have a necessary role in proper muscular development. If given a sufficient outlet for these behaviours with toys, your kitten will be less likely to use family members for these activities. The best toys are lightweight and moveable. These include wads of paper, small balls, and string or ribbon. Kittens should always be supervised when playing with string or ribbons because these items can cause serious intestinal problems if they are swallowed. Any other toy that is small enough to be ingested should also be avoided.


Can I discipline a kitten?

Disciplining a kitten may be necessary if its behaviour towards people or property is inappropriate, but harsh punishment should be avoided. For most kittens, hand clapping and using shaker cans or horns can be intimidating enough to inhibit undesirable behaviour when you are present. Remote punishment, however, is preferred. Remote punishment consists of using something that appears unconnected to the punisher to stop the problem behaviour. Examples include using spray bottles, throwing objects in the direction of the kitten to startle- but not hit, and sing booby traps that make loud noises. Remote punishment is preferred because the kitten will then associate punishment with the undesirable act and not with you.


When should my kitten be vaccinated?

There are many diseases that are fatal to cats. Fortunately, we have the ability to prevent many of these by the use of vaccines. In order to be effective, these vaccines must be given as a series of injections. Ideally, they are given at about 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, but this schedule may vary somewhat depending on several factors.

The routine vaccination schedule will protect your kitten from five diseases: feline distemper, three respiratory organisms, and rabies. The first four are included in a combination vaccine that is given at 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks old. The rabies vaccine is usually given at 12-16 weeks of age. In addition, Feline Leukemia Vaccine (FeLV) is strongly recommended if your cat does or will go outdoors, or if you have another cat that goes in and out. Many veterinarians will advise its use in all cats since this disease is deadly. It is usually transmitted by direct contact with other cats, especially when fighting occurs. A vaccine is also available for protection against Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), an uncommon disease that is most likely to occur in groups of cats. Your veterinarian will discuss the available vaccinations and what is best for your cat based on lifestyle needs.


Do all kittens have worms?

Intestinal parasites are common in kittens. Kittens can become infected with parasites almost as soon as they are born, since one of the most common sources of roundworm infection is in the mother’s milk.

A microscopic examination of a stool sample will usually detect the presence of intestinal parasites. This test, which detects the presence of worm eggs, should be performed on a stool sample from every kitten. Many veterinarians will routinely treat kittens with a broad-spectrum deworming product that is safe and effective against almost all of the common worms of the cat. These products must be repeated once or twice during a three-to-four week period because they only kill adult worms. Most intestinal parasites take approximately three weeks for maturation from their larval stages into adults. Cats remain susceptible to re-infection with hookworks and roundworms. Periodic deworming throughout the cat’s life is recommended for those that go outdoors.

Tapeworms are one of the most common intestinal parasites of cats. Kittens usually become infected with tapeworms when they swallow fleas. The eggs of the tapeworm live inside the flea, and when the cat chews or licks its skin as the flea bites; it often swallows the flea. As the flea is digested within the cat’s intestines, the tapeworm then hatches and attaches itself to the intestinal lining. Each time the kitten is exposed to fleas, there is the chance of a new infection which can occur in as little as two weeks. Cats may also get a tapeworm infection by eating mice or birds; the life cycle of these tapeworm species are similar to that of the flea tapeworm.

Cats infected with tapeworms will pass small segments of the worms on their stool. The segments are white in colour and look like grains of rice. They are about 1/8th of an inch (3mm) long, and may be seen crawling on the surface of the stool. The segments may also stick to the hair under the tail. If that occurs, they will dry out, shrink to about half their size, and become pale yellow in colour.

Tapeworm segments do not pass every day or in every stool sample; therefore, inspection of several consecutive bowel movements may be needed to find them. We may examine a stool sample in our office and not find them, and then you may find them the next day. If you find them at any time, please notify us so we may provide the appropriate drug for treatment. Ideally, you should bring in the worm segments so that we may identify them.


There are lots of choices of cat foods. What should I feed my kitten?

Diet is extremely important for growth, and there are two important criteria that should be met in selecting food for your kitten. We recommend a name-brand food made by a national cat food company (not a generic brand), and a form of food made for kittens. This should be fed until your kitten is about twelve months of age.

Cat foods are available in dry, canned, and semi-moist formulations. Any of these are acceptable, as long as the label states that the food is intended for growth (or is a kitten food), and is “complete and balanced”. This means that the food is nutritionally complete to meet the needs of growth and development. Each of the types of food has its advantages and disadvantages.

Dry food is definitely the most inexpensive and can be left in the cat’s bowl at all times. If given the choice, an average cat will eat a mouthful of food about 12-20 times per day. The good brands of dry food are just as nutritious as the other forms.

Semi-moist food may be acceptable, depending on their quality. The texture may be more appealing to some cats, and they often have a stronger odour and flavour. Semi-moist foods, however, are usually high in sugar and if fed exclusively, can cause the cat to develop a very finicky appetite.

Canned foods are a good choice to feed your kitten, but are considerably more expensive than either of the other forms of food. Canned foods contain a high percentage of water, and their texture, odour, and taste, are very appealing to most cats. Canned food, however, will dry or spoil if left out for prolonged periods of time; it is more suitable for meal feeding rather than free-choice feeding.
Table foods are not recommended. Although they are generally very tasty, cats will often begin to hold out for these and not eat their well-balanced cat food. If you choose to give your kitten table food, be sure that at least 90% of its’ diet is good quality commercial kitten food. We enjoy a variety of things to eat in our diet; however, most cats actually prefer not to change from one food to another unless they are trained to do so by the way you feed them. Do not feel guilty if your cat is happy to eat just one food day after day, week after week.

Commercials for cat food can be very misleading. If you watch carefully, you will notice that commercials promote cat food on one basis: taste. Nutrition is rarely mentioned! Most of the “gourmet” foods are marketed to appeal to owners who want the best for their cats; however, they do not offer the cat any nutritional advantage over a good quality dry food and are generally more expensive. If you read the label of many gourmet foods, you will notice that they do not claim to be “complete and balanced”. If your cat eats a gourmet food for some time, it will probably not be very happy with other foods and may develop nutritional deficiencies. If it needs a special diet due to a health problem later in life, it is very unlikely to accept it. Therefore, we do not encourage feeding gourmet cat foods.

We will provide you with specific recommendations that will help your kitten develop into a healthy cat.


How do I insure that my kitten is well socialized?

The prime socialization period for cats occurs between two and twelve weeks of age. During that time, the kitten is very impressionable to social influences. If it has good experiences with men, women, children, dogs, other cats, etc., it is likely to accept them throughout life. If the experiences are absent or unpleasant, it may become apprehensive or adverse to any of them. Therefore, during the period of socialization, we encourage you to expose your cat to as many types of social situations and influences as possible.


What can be done about fleas on my kitten?

Fleas will not spend their entire life cycle on your kitten. Occasionally, they will jump off and seek another host. This means that it is important to kill fleas that are on your new kitten before they can become established in your house. Many of the flea control products that are safe on adult cats are unsafe to use on kittens less than four months of age. Be sure that any flea product you use is labeled safe for kittens.

If you use a flea spray, your kitten should be sprayed lightly. Flea and tick dip is not recommended for kittens unless they are at least four months of age. Remember, not all insecticides that can be used on dogs are safe for cats and kittens!

There are several flea control products that are administered once per month, and which are safe for use on kittens as young as six weeks. The most effective products are available only by veterinary prescription. We will be happy to discuss the various products that are available and help you to choose the most appropriate program for your kitten.


Can I trim my kitten’s sharp toenails?

Kittens have very sharp toenails. They can be trimmed with your regular fingernail clippers or with nail trimmers made for dogs and cats. If you take too much off the nail, you will cut into the quick, which will be painful and cause bleeding. If this happens, neither you nor your cat will want to do this again. Because of this, we have put together a few helpful points:

  • If you look closely at your cat’s nails, you will be able to see the quick (or nail bed), which is a pinkish area at the base of the nail. As long as you stay at least 1/32” (1mm) in front of the quick, you will be okay.
  • When cutting nails, use sharp trimmers. Dull trimmers tend to crush the nail and cause pain even if you are not in the quick.
    You should always have Styptic Powder available. This is sold in pet stores under several trade names, but it will be labeled for use in trimming nails.

What are ear mites?

Ear mites are tiny insect-like parasites that live in the ear canal of cats and dogs. The most common sign of ear mite infestation is scratching of the ears. Sometimes the ears will appear dirty because of a black material in the ear canal; this material is sometimes shaken out. The instrument we use for examining the ear canals, an otoscope, has the necessary magnification to allow us to see the mites. Sometimes, we can find the mites by taking a small amount of the black material from the ear and examining it with a microscope. Although ear mites may leave the ear canal for short periods of time, they spend the vast majority of their lives within the protection of the ear canal. Transmission generally requires direct ear-to-ear contact. Ear mites are common in litters of kittens if their mother has ear mites.


Why should I have my female cat spayed?

The correct term for spaying is ovariohysterectomy, and refers to the complete removal of the uterus and the ovaries. Spaying your cat offers several advantages.

The female’s heat period, which usually begin at five to six months of age, occur every two to three weeks unless she is bred. She will be receptive, or “in heat” for part of this time in each cycle. Mating behaviour in female cats can be annoying, and neighbourhood male cats may be attracted from blocks away; fighting or marking their territory outside your house while she is in heat. In many cases, the urge to mate is so strong that your indoor cat will attempt to escape outdoors to breed. Despite your best efforts, it is very likely that your cat will become pregnant. Spaying prevents unplanned litters of kittens.

It has been proven that as the female cat gets older; she will have a significant risk of developing breast cancer or a uterine infection called pyometra if she has not been spayed. Spaying before any heat cycles will virtually eliminate the chances of developing breast cancer. If you do not plan to breed your cat, we strongly recommend that she be spayed before her first heat period. This surgical procedure can be done any time after she is five months old.


Why should I have my male cat neutered?

Neutering, or castration, refers to the complete removal of both testicles in a male cat. Neutering offers several advantages. Male cats go through a significant personality change when they mature; they become very possessive of their territory and mark it with their urine to ward off other cats. The tomcat’s urine develops a strong odour that will be almost impossible to remove from your house. They also try to enlarge their territory, which means they will fight continually with other male cats in the neighbourhood. This can result not only in severe infections and abcesses, but also conflict with neighbours. We strongly urge you to have your cat neutered at about six to nine months of age. If he should begin to spray his urine before that time, he should be neutered immediately. The longer he sprays or fights, the less likely neutering is to stop it.